• icons/search
  • icons/search

Ransomware: what is it, how to avoid it and stay safe

Ransomware, one of the gravest threats today, is a type of malware that encrypts a victim's data and demands a ransom for its release. This article provides a comprehensive overview of what ransomware is, how it works, and effective strategies to prevent and manage an attack.


Table of Contents

What Exactly is Ransomware?

Ransomware is a particularly harmful type of malware that aims to encrypt a user’s files, denying access to them. The process begins when ransomware infiltrates the system, often through social engineering techniques like phishing emails or exploiting network vulnerabilities. Once activated, ransomware uses advanced encryption algorithms to lock files, documents, and important data on the infected computer or network. This encryption action renders the data unusable without a specific key that only the attacker possesses.

The primary goal of the attacker is to extort money from the victim, demanding payment, typically in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, for their anonymity and tracking difficulty. This ransom demand is often accompanied by a deadline, after which the attacker threatens to permanently delete the files or increase the ransom amount.

Ransomware attacks can target different entities, from individuals to entire organizations, including hospitals, government agencies, and large corporations. The threat is particularly severe for organizations, as access to encrypted data can disrupt vital operations, causing not only direct financial losses but also reputational damage and operational interruptions. Read our guide to defend yourself from Malware.

Best Anti-Ransomware Antivirus Offers

mcafee totale protectionMcAfee Total Protection19,99€view deal
Acquista Avast UltimateAvast Ultimate24,99€view deal
norton 360 premiumNorton 360 Premium34,99€view deal
Bitdefender Total SecurityBitdefender Total Security49,99€view deal
Kaspersky Plus (ex Total Security)Kaspersky Total Security (Kaspersky Plus)29,99€view deal
eset internet securityEset Internet Security34,99€view deal

Types of Ransomware

There are various types of ransomware, each with specific characteristics and attack methods. Crypto-ransomware is the most common: it encrypts user files, making data inaccessible without a decryption key. Then there’s Locker ransomware, which, instead of encrypting files, locks access to the operating system or critical functions of the device. Another variant is Doxware or Leakware, which threatens to publish sensitive user information online if the ransom is not paid. Furthermore, there’s Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS), a practice where ransomware developers rent their software to criminals, in exchange for a portion of the ransom. Each type of ransomware requires a specific approach in both prevention and response, underscoring the importance of a comprehensive and up-to-date cybersecurity strategy. To confront and shield yourself from ransomware, we recommend choosing one of the best antiviruses on the market from our updated guide.

what is a ransomware attack

How Does Ransomware Spread?

Ransomware spreads through various channels, exploiting both technology and human psychology. Phishing emails are among the most common methods: these are deceptive emails, often disguised as legitimate communications from well-known companies or public entities, that encourage the user to click on harmful links or download infected attachments. These attachments or links, once opened, install ransomware on the user’s device.

In addition to phishing, another common method is through downloading from unsafe websites. Users who download software from unverified or suspicious sites can unknowingly install ransomware on their system. These sites can be disguised as legitimate platforms, making it difficult for users to distinguish between safe and dangerous downloads. A common practice we always advise against is downloading KMS or other software for the activation of Windows 11 or other software like Microsoft Office. 

Another tactic used by hackers is exploiting network vulnerabilities. This includes using outdated software or software not updated with known security vulnerabilities. Attackers can identify these weaknesses and infiltrate business networks or personal systems. Once inside, they can spread ransomware throughout the network, encrypting files on multiple devices.

In some cases, ransomware attacks can be even more sophisticated, using social engineering techniques to trick users into providing direct access to their systems. This can include fraudulent phone calls or messages mimicking requests for technical support or security updates.

To prevent the spread of ransomware, it is crucial to adopt a series of proactive security measures. These include training users to recognize phishing emails, keeping systems and software constantly updated, using reliable antivirus and antimalware software, and implementing appropriate security policies in corporate networks. Awareness and prevention are the keys to protecting yourself from these increasingly sophisticated and harmful attacks.

Ransomware Attack Prevention Strategies

To effectively counter ransomware, it’s essential to adopt targeted and multi-level prevention strategies. One of the most important measures is regular data backups. These backups should be frequent and stored in secure locations, preferably disconnected from the main network, to prevent encryption by a ransomware attack. In the event of an attack, backups will allow data restoration without the need to pay the ransom.

Another crucial strategy is constant updating of software and operating systems. Many ransomware attacks exploit known vulnerabilities in outdated software. By keeping systems updated, the risk of exploiting these vulnerabilities is reduced. It’s equally important to regularly apply security patches released by software manufacturers.

User training and awareness play a key role in preventing ransomware. Users should be educated to recognize phishing attempts and adopt safe browsing practices, such as avoiding downloading files from unreliable sites and not opening suspicious email attachments.

Implementing advanced antivirus and antimalware is another cornerstone of prevention. These tools can detect and block malware and intrusion attempts before they cause damage. Additionally, the use of firewalls and intrusion prevention systems can help monitor and block suspicious traffic, further protecting the network.

An approach based on the principle of least privilege is equally important. This means limiting user access rights to only the data and resources they need to perform their work. In this way, even if a user is compromised, the impact of the attack can be contained.

Finally, having a well-defined incident response plan is essential. This plan should include specific procedures on how to react in the event of a ransomware attack, who to contact, and how to quickly restore systems and data.

By adopting these strategies, both organizations and individual users can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to ransomware attacks and mitigate the impact of these harmful events.

ransomware attacks

How to Respond to a Ransomware Attack

When a ransomware attack occurs, a swift and effective response is crucial to minimize damage. The first step is to immediately disconnect the infected system from the network to prevent the malware from spreading to other devices. This includes physically unplugging all network connections, disabling Wi-Fi, and any other wireless connections.

Next, it’s critical to identify the ransomware variant involved in the attack. This can be done using cybersecurity tools or consulting security experts. Some ransomware variants have been decrypted, and decryption tools might be available online for free. However, it’s important to ensure that such tools are reliable and from secure sources to avoid further compromising the system.

After identifying the variant, it’s important to assess the extent of the damage. This includes determining which files have been encrypted and if there are recent backups that can be used to restore the data. At this stage, it’s essential to stay calm and not rush to pay the ransom, as this does not guarantee the return of the data and can encourage further attacks.

Once the damage is assessed, it’s necessary to contact the relevant authorities, such as law enforcement or government agencies specializing in cybercrimes. Reporting the attack can help in investigations and contribute to preventing future similar attacks.

Simultaneously, it’s advisable to communicate the incident to involved stakeholders, such as customers, partners, and employees, providing clear and transparent information about the situation and the measures taken to resolve it. This helps to maintain trust and manage the reputational impact of the attack.

Finally, it’s crucial to review and enhance security measures to prevent future attacks. This can include a thorough analysis of the causes of the attack, updating security protocols, and additional training for users.

Addressing a ransomware attack requires a balanced approach that considers both technical and communicative aspects, in order to effectively manage the situation and restore normal operations as quickly as possible.

ransomware hacker attack

The future of ransomware appears to be a continuously and rapidly changing landscape, with new challenges for cybersecurity. Ransomware attacks will likely evolve in terms of sophistication, targeting, and impact. One emerging trend is the increase in targeted attacks. Instead of indiscriminate attacks, cybercriminals will carefully select their victims, such as large corporations or government entities, where the potential for gain is greater and the likelihood of ransom payment is higher.

Another predictable evolution is the use of advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. Attackers might use AI to identify vulnerable targets, optimize malware spread, and even negotiate ransoms more effectively. Similarly, we could see the development of ransomware capable of automatically adapting to evade security controls.

A third aspect involves the integration with other forms of cybercrime. For example, combining ransomware with data theft attacks (data breach) is already becoming common. In the future, we might see ransomware combined with DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks or other forms of malware, thereby increasing the pressure on victims and making the attacks more harmful.

Furthermore, the rise in Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) attacks is likely, where ransomware is offered as a service on the dark web, making it easier for criminals without specific technical skills to launch attacks. This democratization of ransomware could lead to a general increase in attacks.

It’s also foreseeable that ransomware will increasingly exploit vulnerabilities in IoT (Internet of Things) devices and critical infrastructure. With increased connectivity and growing dependence on smart devices, attackers might target systems that would cause the maximum impact in the event of an attack, such as energy networks, transportation systems, and medical devices.

Finally, we might see an increase in ransomware threats to reveal sensitive information in addition to simple data encryption, an approach known as “double extortion.” This method not only encrypts the data but also threatens to release it publicly or sell it if the ransom is not paid.

ransomware protection

Examples of Ransomware Attacks

Ransomware attacks have impacted a wide range of targets over the years, demonstrating their danger and destructive potential. Here are some significant examples:

  • WannaCry Attack (2017): This attack had a global impact, infecting over 200,000 computers in 150 countries. WannaCry exploited a vulnerability in Windows systems to encrypt data and demand a Bitcoin ransom. It affected numerous important organizations, including hospitals, businesses, and government agencies.
  • Colonial Pipeline (2021): One of the largest pipeline companies in the United States was hit by a ransomware attack by the DarkSide group. This incident led to the temporary shutdown of a major pipeline, causing significant fuel supply disruptions and price increases.
  • NotPetya Attack (2017): Initially considered ransomware, NotPetya turned out to be more of a destructive attack. It particularly targeted Ukraine, damaging government systems, banks, and critical infrastructure, with significant global collateral effects.
  • Garmin Attack (2020): Garmin, a well-known GPS device manufacturer, was hit by a ransomware attack that paralyzed some of its services, including Garmin Connect and customer support lines. Garmin had to suspend operations to manage and resolve the incident.
  • Irish Health Service System (2021): The Irish national health service (HSE) was severely hit by a ransomware attack, forcing the shutdown of many essential IT systems. This had a direct impact on hospital services and patient care.
  • University of California, San Francisco (2020): UCSF suffered a ransomware attack that affected some of its research departments. The university decided to pay over $1 million ransom to recover access to encrypted research data.

These examples show how ransomware attacks can target different sectors and have serious consequences, from operational disruption to loss of critical data, and significant economic and social repercussions. They also underscore the importance of robust security measures and an effective incident response strategy for organizations of all sizes.

ransomware prevention

Ransomware Risks for Businesses

Ransomware poses a growing threat to businesses of all sizes, bringing with it significant risks that can have long-term repercussions. The ability of this malware to encrypt critical business data makes it one of the most damaging and challenging cyber threats to manage.

  1. Operational Disruption: One of the most immediate aspects of a ransomware attack is the disruption of daily operations. The encryption of files prevents access to essential data for business activities, causing halts in production, service provision, or sales.
  2. Financial Loss: The economic damage caused by a ransomware attack can be considerable. Beyond the potential ransom payment, which does not guarantee data return, businesses face the costs of system restoration, income loss due to operational interruption, and possible penalties for data breach violations.
  3. Reputational Damage: A ransomware attack can seriously harm a company’s reputation. The trust of customers and business partners can be compromised, especially if the attack involves a breach of sensitive data.
  4. Compliance Risks and Legal Sanctions: Businesses are obligated to protect customer and user data. A ransomware attack leading to data loss or theft can result in violations of data privacy regulations, such as the GDPR, with ensuing penalties and legal actions.
  5. Data Loss: Despite the ransom payment, there’s no guarantee that the encrypted data will be recovered. The loss of sensitive or critical data can have devastating long-term impacts on business operations.
  6. Risks to Employee and Customer Security: Ransomware attacks involving data theft can endanger the personal security of employees and customers, potentially exposing sensitive information.
  7. Supply Chain Impact: In an interconnected economy, a ransomware attack on a single company can have cascading effects throughout the entire supply chain, affecting numerous business partners.
  8. Long-Term Risks: The effects of a ransomware attack can persist well beyond the moment of the attack itself, with businesses taking months or even years to fully recover.

What to Do If You’re Asked for a Ransom

Being targeted by a ransomware attack and receiving a ransom demand puts you in a complex and delicate situation. The initial reaction might be to pay the ransom to quickly recover your data. However, paying does not guarantee the return of your data and may encourage criminals to continue their illicit activities. Before making any decision, it’s important to assess the extent of the attack and understand which data has been encrypted. This will help evaluate the available options for data recovery. Turning to professionals in cybersecurity is a crucial step. Experts can provide advice on handling the attack and assess the feasibility of recovering data without paying the ransom. Report the incident to law enforcement or governmental bodies specializing in cybercrimes. They can provide assistance and advice, as well as collect useful information to combat cybercriminals. In some cases, decryption keys for specific ransomware might be available for free online, thanks to the work of security experts and anti-malware organizations. If you have recent and secure backups, consider restoring data from these instead of paying the ransom. Consult with a lawyer to understand the legal implications of paying the ransom, especially in relation to regulations like the GDPR. If the attack affects customers or other external parties, communicate clearly and transparently about the situation and the measures taken to address it. After an attack, it’s vital to review and strengthen security policies to prevent future incidents.

Deciding whether to pay a ransom following a ransomware attack is a complex decision that depends on many factors, including the nature of the encrypted data, recovery capabilities, and legal and ethical implications. It is advisable to consider all options and consult experts before making a decision.

antivirus anti ransomware

Best Antivirus Software Against Ransomware

In the battle against ransomware, using a good antivirus software is crucial. Modern antivirus programs not only remove malware but also offer proactive prevention and detection features to protect against ransomware attacks. Here are some of the best antivirus solutions that are particularly effective against ransomware:

  • Bitdefender Antivirus: Known for its robust and reliable protection, Bitdefender offers advanced features like multi-layer ransomware protection, which includes behavioral monitoring to detect suspicious activities and data protection by safeguarding files in controlled directories.
  • Norton Antivirus: Norton is renowned for its comprehensive approach to security. It provides excellent protection against ransomware through its multi-layer defense system that includes not just malware detection but also an advanced firewall and automatic backup tools.
  • Kaspersky Anti-Virus: Kaspersky is particularly effective in detecting and neutralizing ransomware. It uses sophisticated behavioral analysis to identify patterns of suspicious activities and block attacks before they can encrypt data.
  • McAfee Total Protection: In addition to standard antivirus protection, McAfee Total Protection includes specific tools to combat ransomware, such as privacy protection and secure file storage, making it a strong option for home and business cybersecurity.
  • ESET NOD32 Antivirus: ESET offers solid protection against various types of malware, including ransomware. It stands out for its lightweight nature, reducing the impact on system performance while providing effective protection.

When choosing an antivirus to protect against ransomware, it’s important to consider not only the malware detection capability but also additional features like data backup, exploit protection, and parental control options. An integrated approach to security, combining a good antivirus with other cybersecurity practices, is the best strategy to protect against ransomware and other cyber threats.

What Happens to a PC Hit by Ransomware

When a PC is infected with ransomware, it undergoes a series of changes and negative impacts that can seriously compromise data and system functionality. Here’s what typically happens in these cases:

  • Data Encryption: The ransomware begins by encrypting files on the computer. It uses advanced encryption algorithms to make files inaccessible without a decryption key. Affected files can include documents, images, videos, and other important data.
  • Ransom Demand: Once the data is encrypted, the ransomware usually displays a notification or a message on the screen informing the user of the encryption and demanding payment, often in cryptocurrency, to provide the necessary decryption key to unlock the files.
  • System Access Restriction: In some cases, ransomware can block access to important parts of the operating system or specific computer functions, making normal use of the PC difficult or impossible.
  • Information Gathering: Some types of ransomware may also collect information from the infected computer, such as personal or business data, which can be used for further acts of extortion or sold on the dark web.
  • Spread Across Network: If the infected computer is part of a business or home network, the ransomware can attempt to spread to other connected devices, amplifying the impact of the attack.
  • Impact on System Performance: During the encryption process, the system’s performance may slow down, as the ransomware uses significant computer resources.
  • Changes to System Registry and Security Settings: Ransomware can modify the system registry and security settings to ensure its persistence, complicating efforts to remove it or restore the system.
  • User Psychology: The affected user may experience feelings of anxiety, stress, and helplessness, especially if the encrypted data includes personal or work-related information of vital importance.
ransomware recovery

The History of Ransomware

The history of ransomware is a journey through the evolution of cybercrime, witnessing these malicious software transform from simple experiments to sophisticated criminal operations. The earliest known case of ransomware dates back to 1989 with the so-called AIDS Trojan, created by Joseph Popp. This malware was distributed via floppy disks and demanded payment to unlock encrypted files. However, this act was more of an isolated experiment than the start of a trend.

The real rise of ransomware began with the advent of the internet and the spread of more advanced encryption techniques. In the 2000s, ransomware started gaining popularity among cybercriminals, with variants like GpCode, TROJ.RANSOM.A, and Arhiveus. These early ransomware were relatively simple, often using weak encryption techniques that could be broken by security experts.

The landscape drastically changed with the introduction of CryptoLocker in 2013, marking a turning point in ransomware history. CryptoLocker utilized strong encryption algorithms, making the victims’ files nearly impossible to decrypt without the decryption key. CryptoLocker’s success inspired a new wave of more sophisticated ransomware, including CryptoWall, TeslaCrypt, and Locky.

A significant leap occurred with the emergence of the Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) model. This innovation allowed even criminals without advanced technical skills to launch ransomware attacks, exponentially increasing the frequency and severity of attacks.

The year 2017 witnessed two of the biggest ransomware attacks in history: WannaCry and NotPetya. WannaCry spread globally, infecting hundreds of thousands of computers in over 150 countries, exploiting a vulnerability in Windows systems. NotPetya, although initially classified as ransomware, later revealed itself more as a cyberweapon, intended to cause destruction rather than gain through ransoms.


In conclusion, ransomware represents one of the most severe and rapidly evolving cyber threats in today’s digital landscape. A thorough understanding of what ransomware is, how it spreads, and its impacts is crucial for both individuals and organizations. Prevention strategies, including regular backups, constant updates of software and systems, user training, and the use of advanced antivirus solutions, are essential to mitigate the risk of ransomware attacks.

Frequently Asked Questions about Ransomware

Ransomware is a type of malware that encrypts files on a computer or network and demands a ransom for decryption.
Ransomware mainly spreads through phishing emails, downloads from unsafe websites, and by exploiting vulnerabilities in networks or systems.
Sometimes it’s possible to recover files through uncompromised backups or using decryption tools available, but there’s no guarantee.
Paying the ransom is discouraged as it does not guarantee the return of files and encourages further attacks.
To protect against ransomware, it’s essential to make regular backups, keep software and systems updated, use reliable antivirus, and train users to recognize phishing attempts.
If hit by ransomware, it’s important to immediately isolate the device, not pay the ransom, consult security experts, and evaluate data recovery options.
Many modern antivirus programs include specific protections against ransomware, but no system is foolproof. Active prevention and user education remain crucial.
While Windows PCs are most commonly targeted, ransomware can also infect Mac, Linux systems, and mobile devices.
RaaS is a business model where ransomware developers rent their malware to other criminals, making it easier for non-experts to execute ransomware attacks.
After a ransomware attack, it’s important to follow an incident response plan, restore data from secure backups if possible, and strengthen security measures to prevent future attacks.

Leave a comment

Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Follow Us


Get the best blog stories into your inbox

Recent Posts

Editor's Choise

articles of the day

Subscribe to our Newsletter

abbiamo una sorpresa per te!

Per il mese di Marzo abbiamo preparato un’iniziativa esclusiva. Sarà una primavera da ricordare con Mr Key Shop.

Iscriviti alla lista d’attesa per ricevere per primo la notizia.